Glossary

Glossary

These definitions of medical terms will help you understand about your condition better, so you can consult with your doctor to choose treatment options that are right for you.

A

Acetaminophen
A drug used to relieve pain and fever.

Analgesics
Medications for pain relief.

Arthralgia
Pain in one or more joints.

Arthritis
Inflammation of a joint or joints resulting in pain, swelling and stiffness.

Articular
Relating to a joint.

Articular Cartilage
Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.

B

Bone
The hard tissue that provides structural support to the body. It is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen. Individual bones may be classed as long, short, or flat.

C

Cartilage
A usually translucent, somewhat elastic, connective tissue, found throughout the body.

Clavicle
The collarbone.

Collagen
A fibrous protein which is a major constituent of connective tissue. Such as skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones.

Contraindicated
When a treatment or procedure is not advised.

Corticosteroid Injections
A steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (the outer portion of the adrenal glands). Administered as drugs, these injections reduce swelling and decrease the body's immune response.

D

Dislocation
Displacement of an organ or any part; specifically disturbance or disarrangement of the normal relation of the bones entering the formation of a joint.

E

Efficacy
Capacity for producing a desired result or effect.

Endorphins
Any of a group of hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having a number of physiological functions. Endorphins activate the body’s receptors, causing an analgesic effect.

Endoscopic Visualization
A procedure using an endoscope to diagnose a treatment or condition.

G

Glenohumeral joint
True shoulder joint.

Greater Tuberosity
The prominent area of the bone at the top of the humerus and is the attachment for two rotator cuff muscles.

H

Humerus
The bone of the upper arm or forelimb, forming joints at the shoulder and the elbow.

Hydroxyapatite
A mineral of the apatite group that is the main inorganic constituent of tooth enamel and bone.

I

Inflammation
A localized tissue response initiated by the injury or destruction of vascularized tissues. Inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain that accompany musculoskeletal injuries; occurs when tissue is crushed, stretched, or torn.

J

Joint
The junction or articulation of two or more bones that permits varying degrees of motion between the bones.

Joint Capsule
The sac that encloses a joint, formed by an outer fibrous capsule and an inner synovial membrane.

Joint Fluid
A transparent, lubricating fluid secreted by a membrane of an articulation (place of union between two or more joints) or bursa (a saclike body cavity between a tendon and bone).

M

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A special imaging technique used to image internal structures of the body particularly the soft tissues.

Minimally Invasive Surgery
Surgery requiring small incision(s), usually performed with endoscopic visualization.

N

Nerve
A whitish fiber or bundle of fibers (in the body) that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs.

Nonpharmacologic Therapy
A non-drug therapy, such as exercise, with therapeutic value.

O

Osteoarthritis
This kind of arthritis typically begins during middle age or later and is characterized by degenerative (gradual deterioration of joint) and sometimes abnormal growth in the bone and cartilage of one or more joints, and a progressive wearing down of opposing joint surfaces with consequent distortion of joint position. It is marked symptomatically especially by pain, swelling and stiffness; abbreviation (OA).

P

Physical Therapy
The treatment consisting of exercising specific parts of the body such as the legs, arms, hands or neck, in an effort to strengthen, regain range of motion, relearn movement and/or rehabilitate the musculoskeletal system to improve function.

Posterior
The back of the body or situated nearer the back of the body.

Proximal
Nearest the center of the body.

R

Rehabilitation
Restoration, following disease, illness, or injury, of the ability to function in a normal or near-normal manner.

Rotator cuff
The rotator cuff is made up of four muscles and their tendons. These combine to form a "cuff" over the head of the humerus. The four muscles-the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor-originate from the scapula and together form a single tendon unit that inserts on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. The rotator cuff helps to lift and rotate the arm and to stabilize the ball of the shoulder within the joint.

S

Scapula
Technical term for shoulder blade.

Strain
To injure by overuse or improper use.

Synovial Fluid
A lubricating fluid resembling the white of an egg, secreted by certain membranes, as those of the joints; also called joint fluid.

T

Tendons
Fibrous bands, one at each end of a muscle, that connect the muscle to bones.

Tendonitis
Inflammation of a tendon

TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation)
The stimulation of a nerve by passing electrical currents through the skin.

Tissue
A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them.

Trauma
Physical injury.

DSUS/MOC/0416/0498a 9/2016

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IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

As with any medical treatment, individual results may vary. There are potential risks and recovery takes time. People with conditions limiting rehabilitation should not have this surgery. Only an orthopaedic surgeon can tell if shoulder arthroscopy is right for you.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

As with any medical treatment, individual results may vary. The performance of shoulder replacements depends on age, weight, activity level and other factors. There are potential risks and recovery takes time. If you have conditions that limit rehabilitation you should not have this surgery. Only an orthopaedic surgeon can tell you if shoulder replacement is right for you.